机器真的能思考吗? Is artificial intelligence the end of the human race or a tool that can aid us even after we die? 美极教授Savin-Baden 学校的教育 讨论了人工智能在数字永生中的作用, 虚拟人类和万博体育app下载入口对未来的期望.

数字不朽

The concept of digital immortality has emerged over the past decade 和 is defined in this post as the continuation of an active or passive digital presence after your death. 本博客将解释知识管理的进展, 机器间通信, data mining 和 artificial intelligence are now making an active presence after death possible. It will explain how digital immortality has moved beyond simple memorial pages 和 ‘beyond the grave’ updates, 来自死去的家人或朋友. 现在有公司致力于创造数字不朽的人物形象. 

电脑生成的女性面部图像被代码包围着

考虑到与数字永生相关的各种实践和行为, 有证据表明,它对宗教环境产生了影响. 例如,数字永生正在影响悲伤和哀悼活动. It is also creating new forms of legacy as well as introducing new issues for the funeral industry. 

人工智能 

人工智能通常被认为是机器人或会思考的机器. 从流行的观点来看, artificial intelligence (AI) is seen as science-fiction characters like the Hal 9000 computer from 2001或者第四频道的机器人 人类. 在现代市场营销中, it is taken as any reasonably complex programme or algorithm – often based on machine-learning principles, 但人工智能的复杂性和多样性远不止于此. Recently there have been considerable improvements to AI such as better text-to-speech, improved speech recognition 和 high-quality avatars (the bodily manifestation of one’s self). 

机器人的人

The challenge with Artificial intelligence is to cross the ‘uncanny valley’; the idea that human replicas may elicit feelings of eeriness in looks, 声音,尤其是行为, 比如情绪反应. 例如, virtual assistants such as Siri 和 Alexa provide voice 和 conversational interfaces to information 和 begin to deliver on some of the promises of virtual personal assistants. The growth in the use of machine learning techniques to mine large amounts of data 和 to make deductions from it that can equal (or even exceed) human analysis. 

 


Hern reported that The European Parliament has urged the drafting of a set of regulations to govern the use 和 creation of robots 和 artificial intelligence.[i] 建议需要处理的领域如下:

  • 建立一个欧洲机器人和人工智能机构;
  • A legal definition of ‘smart autonomous robots’, with a registration for the most advanced;
  • An advisory code of conduct to guide the ethical design, production 和 use of robots;
  • A new reporting structure for companies requiring them to report the contribution of robotics 和 AI to the economic results of a company for the purpose of taxation 和 social security contributions
  • 一项强制性保险计划,为公司承保由其机器人造成的损失.

这份报告对自动驾驶汽车的未来特别感兴趣, 比如自动驾驶汽车, but as yet there seems relatively little detail about how this might be implemented or developed. 然而, 2017年秋索菲亚, 一个人形机器人在联合国发表了演讲, 促使人们认识到需要更多的辩论, 以及这个领域的立法.

虚拟人

阿兰·图灵
阿兰·图灵, who is widely considered to be the father of modern computer science 和 artificial intelligence.

 

One of the main shifts has been to move away from a general underst和ing of AI 和 instead to refer to different types. 一个特别增长的领域是虚拟人. 图灵提出了一个他称之为"模仿游戏"的测试,, 设计来回答“机器会思考吗??’[i] 他预测,他提出的测试将在2000年左右通过, 但事实并非如此.

In the 1980s Searle suggested that the computer is just a symbol processing machine 和 it cannot be said to think.[i]

 

If a machine can play chess better than the very best human player, does that make it intelligent? 塞尔会说没有, 只有人类程序员才有智慧, 是谁给机器编程来实现他们的想法的. 然而, how is this different from a human mentor that teaches a student to play chess? Do we say the mentor is intelligent 和 the student is merely following the rules she was taught?

It is evident 从 literature that ‘虚拟人’ tends to be used as an overarching term that includes Chatbots, 自主代理和教学代理. 虚拟人 are characters on the computer screen with embodied life-like behaviours such as speech, 情绪, 运动和手势. Evidence has shown that many users are not only comfortable interacting with high-quality 虚拟人, but that an emotional connection can be developed between users 和 as 虚拟人. The focus is on enabling the user to interact with the software using everyday language rather than clicking on icons or using menu selections. 

几个蓝眼睛发光的机器人坐在一起

很多人担心人工智能的影响和未来. 有些担心是有道理的, it is important to be aware of the ways in which media coverage can exaggerate claims.

There are legitimate concerns about artificial intelligence being used to control cars 和 weapons systems. 然而, it is probably unlikely that as Stephen Hawking suggests that ‘the development of full AI would spell the end of the human race.’

 


结论

万博体育app下载入口不仅看到了知识管理的进步, data mining 和 artificial intelligence but also in merging our human bodies with technology. This ‘body hacking’ includes inserting chips into our arms to open doors 和 pick up metal objects, 和 implanting antenna into our brains to translate the colour spectrum into different vibrations, 使用户能够“听到”颜色. 而对有些人来说,这就是艺术, 对其他人来说则是在玩弄技术, there are useful advances such as the creation of bone implants that enable the mounting of a replacement arm on to the skeleton which can then be controlled naturally, 使用大脑信号.

[1] A. 欧盟委员会呼吁赋予机器人人格地位 《万博体育app下载入口》 17th 1月(2017).

[1] A. 图灵,"计算机器与智能" LIX / 236(1950),页. 433–460.

 

美极教授Savin-Baden美国的研究往往集中在学习的创新和改变上, 以及虚拟世界和它们在教学中的作用. Professor Savin-Baden has recently Co-authored a new book with David Burden on virtual humans called "今天和明天的虚拟人” which explores virtual humans in a variety of roles, from personal assistants to teachers .

All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 和 do not represent the views, 万博体育app下载入口或其合作伙伴的政策或意见.